Hey Liz, good story. We nearby flat landers love the neat mountain passes of Vermont. To some questions and good points you made:
—The thing you blew apart is a check valve to keep fuel from running out when/if the bike tips over. Who lets that happen? ;)
—The fuel pressure will stay at around 40 PSI after a couple seconds on, even after the key is off (photo below, motor and key off).
The stock pressure for 1100s and 1150s at idle is 43.5 psi in the line going from the tank to the fuel distributor, and the return rate in the line going from the distributor back to the tank at idle is 1/2 gallon per minute. If you check both you have a good idea of the health of your fuel system. Measuring the return volume is more important than pressure since the regulators are pretty bulletin proof.