You were very unlucky. Usually the carabineros dont bother to take foreigners licenses because they dont expect them to be bothered to get them back.
What ticket did he write you?
If you live in Chile and get a ticket away from home you can go to your local carabinero within 72?.. Hours and ask to have the license and fine transferred to there. Not sure how long it takes or whether it would help you.
Cant imagine it would ever be a problem other than the fact that you dont have a license now unless you carry spares.