Originally Posted by BlueLghtning
Yeah, Rob is correct. A good easy way to think about this is how a bicycle with at least 10 speeds work or even better 15-18 speeds. Depending on your number of gears, you either had 2-3 sprockets up front and 5-7 sprockets on the rear.
If you went to the smaller sprockets on the front and/or larger sprockets on the back, it made it easier to climb hills, but your feet on the pedals turned many more revolutions to go the same speed. If you really wanted to go fast down hill, you went to the big gears up front and small gears in back and it became much harder to pedal, but you could go much faster with less revolutions of the pedals.
Sprocket changes on a motorcycle basically has the same "overall" affect to your final gearing on the bike.
Thanks for the detailed explanation.