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Old 12-17-2011, 09:26 AM   #16
Andrew
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Can those signals be acquired through simple analog or digital DAQ?
I could put a 16-bit DAQ card in my laptop, and sample eight channels at 125 kHZ each.
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Old 12-17-2011, 07:46 PM   #17
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LC-1 Installed

Yesterday I finished installing the Innovate Motorsports LC-1 Wideband O2 Controller on my 2004 R1150RT. Before describing the project and my first test ride impressions a couple points:

--When the valves are adjusted, idle set and the throttle bodies are balanced my 1150RT runs pretty well.
--My preference is that the motorcycle is as near stock as possible, maintaining EVAP canister and Catalytic converter.
--BMW and Bosch (Motronic, O2 sensor, ABS) design well and know more about these systems than I ever could.
--The aircraft that I flew for a couple decades had three main performance modes: Full Rich (takeoff and climb), Best Power (fastest cruise, AFR< 14) and Best Economy (greatest range, AFR > 15). Although all modes were "smooth", if you over-leaned Best Economy the engine would start to stumble and eventually ping.

--Ethanol fuel: The 2004 RT uses Open Loop fueling tables that were designed for gasoline with a stoichiometric AFR of 14.7:1. In the Northeast US, gasoline with up to 10% ethanol is about all that's available, which has a 14.1:1 AFR. This suggests that the stock Open Loop fueling tables run about 4% leaner than the BMW/Bosch designers planned for. (In Closed Loop operation when the O2 sensor is used for control it automatically corrects for the E10 fuel.)

--My '04 RT feels strong while the engine is cold. After warming up, the motor seems reigned-in a bit from 2,000 rpm to 4,000 rpm (and reminds me a lot of how my plane felt with a too-lean mixture). After warming up the Motronic allows Closed Loop operation with the O2 sensor which means the AFR (in gasoline terms) is toggling between an AFR in the low 14s to an AFR in the low 15s. And since the cylinders are independent of one another, one cylinder is bound to be even leaner than the other.

My project goals:
1) Open Loop: Richen fueling tables to compensate for gasoline with Ethanol added. For this I've used a BoosterPlug which claims 6% richer mixtures; and ethanol fuel is about 4% leaner so I'm guessing about a 2% gain richer mixture overall.)

2) Closed Loop: Richen the stoichiometric target by the smallest amount needed to remove the sense of leanness between 2,000 and 4000 rpm. The Innovate Motorsports LC-1 provides a programmable Narrow Band output to the bike's Motronic ECU input.

Project:
LC-1 Kit: Bosch Wideband O2 sensor, LC-1 Controller, Cables, Programming Software, Serial Bus programming input.
Also purchased: PC Serial Bus to USB Converter (since none of my computers have serial inputs)

1. Pull the fairings, remove the fuel tank (replaced QDs at same time).
2. Drop the exhaust, remove stock Narrow Band O2 sensor, install Wideband O2 sensor.
3. Install LC-1 controller on right side of bike, under tank on frame, near alternator.
4. Connect Wideband O2 to LC-1, routing cable using same path as stock O2 sensor.
5. Route LC-1 cables to left-hand side of bike, along frame, and make connections to power, ground, AFR meter (part of LC-1).
6. Route LC-1 programming cables to area under seat behind electrical box.
7. Connect LC-1 Narrow Band output to Motronic by cutting and splicing into the original O2 sensor leads.
8. Leave O2 heater wires connected to the stock Narrow Band sensor, temporarily, until I can figure out what the Motronic needs to "see" in order to enable Closed Loop and not create a fault code. Tie wrap O2 sensor to frame.
9. Program closed loop AFR target to 14.2 which was a guess about where to start.
10. Start the motorcycle, attach the GS-911, let it warm up, confirm Closed Loop operation and make sure there were no Fault Codes in the Motronic. EVERYTHING WORKED! (Photo below shows #1) AFR switch points, and #2) that the bike entered Closed Loop after warming up.)

The installation took about 6 hours spread over a few days. Someone experienced could do it faster but it was the first time I'd pulled the tank and exhaust. I got out for a test ride late yesterday.

Riding Impressions:
The course was over winding, hilly, straight and flat roads for about an hour. I am truly excited by the first results. Knowing that I'm looking for a positive outcome I wouldn't blame you for being skeptical. I haven't collected data yet to back up my impressions. But I'm not selling anything, just trying to enjoy my bike more. Here are some observations.

--No hesitation, no feeling of being reigned-in or surging. No popping, pinging or backfiring. In brief, no negatives.
--Very smooth acceleration in every gear at high and low RPMs.
--Good roll on throttle response at high and low RPMs.
--Very good cruise at low RPMs (2,500 to 4,000). 5th gear was a pleasure at 40 MPH or so. 6th gear, from memory, was easy at 50.
--Smooth at high RPMs.
--Warmed-up bike using Closed Loop modes feels just like the cold engine--strong and smooth.

Still to be done:
--Clean up wiring
--Figure out what to do about Motronic heater wires (cut or add a resistor)
--Try many more combinations of Closed Loop AFR settings
--Carefully monitor Motronic operation with GS-911 (no error codes so far)
--Get an exhaust gas analysis after settling on an AFR.

I'm not sure how much I can get done before the snow starts here in MA. When it does start snowing, the bike will get opened up for a spline lube.

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Old 12-19-2011, 07:06 AM   #18
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This is just what I have been thinking about doing for the last few months. I have an LC-1 in my rally car (sitting idle at the moment) that I was going to grab and use just as you have. I am very curious about your results, and the data you will be collecting, so please continue posting!. I have a r1100gs with a not as smart ECU, but I think the gains will be on par with yours if I install the LC-1 for closed loop and a AIT offset (IICE air) for open loop.
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Old 12-19-2011, 08:40 AM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Graminal95 View Post
This is just what I have been thinking about doing for the last few months. I have an LC-1 in my rally car (sitting idle at the moment) that I was going to grab and use just as you have. I am very curious about your results, and the data you will be collecting, so please continue posting!. I have a r1100gs with a not as smart ECU, but I think the gains will be on par with yours if I install the LC-1 for closed loop and a AIT offset (IICE air) for open loop.
You will be pleased with the results if you can handle the wiring. Yesterday I rode and collected several thousand data points at AFR=14.2 and AFR=13.8 which I will write up later today or tomorrow.

Both delivered excellent responsiveness, to the point that I would sound over-the-top if I described the improvement. Let me just say, the bike runs VERY smoothly now at both settings.

One of the differences between 14.2 and 13.8 is that the idle speed increased by 75 RPM (approx.) when I adjusted to 13.8. This gives one indication of how much the Boxer engine likes a Best Power type mixture.

The other thing that the data I will plot shows is that the Motronic can't tell there's a programmable O2 sensor connected--this is good! It goes closed loop as it always did, BUT, at a richer Closed Loop mixture.

If you try installing the LC-1 and a gauge, there are the following connections to make:

Key-On 12V: Find a power wire that is only on when the key is on. There are two/three wires to connect.
Low Impedance Ground: At the Battery Negative. There are four/five wires to connect.
Motronic O2 inputs: Black for signal, Grey for ground (still deciding what to do with the Grey wire), two White wires for the O2 heater. Heater wires need to be connected to the old O2 sensor or a resistor. I am connected to the old O2 but will replace with a 10 Ohm resistor (approx.).
Other misc. connections: Led, Switch, gauge.

The layout will be the hardest part, figuring out what to put where. When I have a final opinion on how best to connect the Motronic Sensor-Ground-Input (grey wire), I will post that.
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Old 12-19-2011, 12:32 PM   #20
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Andrew View Post

Can those signals be acquired through simple analog or digital DAQ?
I could put a 16-bit DAQ card in my laptop, and sample eight channels at 125 kHZ each.
They can, you'll need to connect directly to the signal sources. The data Roger is collecting is passed as serial data to the GS-911, from the ECU diagnostic port.

There's a lot of different signals. Below is a list of the minimums specs to get usable fuel and spark timing data:
TPS: Two 0-5V signals, 10bit/100Hz
O2 Sensor: One 0-1V signal, 10bit/50Hz
Hall Effect: Two 0-12V signals, 1bit/1MHz
Fuel Injector: One 0-12V signal, 1bit/10MHz
Ignition Coil Driver: One 0-12V signal, 1bit/1MHz

For example, 125KHz isn't fast enough to capture the sub-microsecond resolution of the fuel injector signal pulse. The ECU adjusts the injector pulsewidth with sub-microsecond resolution.


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Old 12-19-2011, 12:33 PM   #21
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Great job, Roger!

I'm going to read your posts over more carefully when I get a chance.


Quote:
Originally Posted by roger 04 rt View Post

Still to be done:
--Figure out what to do about Motronic heater wires (cut or add a resistor)
You might try powering the heater in the LC-1 sensor from the ECU, you know, just like the narrow band heater. The ECU O2 sensor heater output is always on when the motor is running, and I don't recall but the heater may also be on whenever the ignition key is on.

The LC-1 may have a PWM heater control. If so, use the ECU O2 heater output as the high current input to the LC-1 heater supply. Note: 'High current' is a relative term here. An O2 sensor heater only uses about 16-18W or 1.25-1.50A


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Old 12-19-2011, 06:32 PM   #22
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Poolside View Post
Great job, Roger!

I'm going to read your posts over more carefully when I get a chance.



You might try powering the heater in the LC-1 sensor from the ECU, you know, just like the narrow band heater. The ECU O2 sensor heater output is always on when the motor is running, and I don't recall but the heater may also be on whenever the ignition key is on.

The LC-1 may have a PWM heater control. If so, use the ECU O2 heater output as the high current input to the LC-1 heater supply. Note: 'High current' is a relative term here. An O2 sensor heater only uses about 16-18W or 1.25-1.50A

Had a good look at running the LC-1 heater ground, which is separate, to the Motronic heater ground but decided against it. With a schematic of both the LC-1 and Motronic, I might try; but without those, I don't want to take the risks of: damage, noise and ground loops.

The LC-1 may have a PWM (pulse width modulated) heater control.

I'm thinking about a 10 ohm resistor but one kit I saw suggested 20 ohms would work--still deciding.

Also working on some other circuit/wiring/filtering details on the Motronic's O2 sensor input.
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Old 12-19-2011, 06:59 PM   #23
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Two Test Rides

Over the last two days I've put a few hours on the bike. I have to say, that the slight downward shift of Closed Loop Lambda (AFR) from 1.000 to 0.965, has made a remarkable change in smoothness and low-end power. There has not been any sense of hesitation, in fact quite the opposite. I'm now running RPMs between 2500 and 3500 around town, even in 5th gear.

As far as the Motronic ECU is concerned the data looks like this:

Total data points: 4,000
Percent Closed Loop: 45% (same as before for the local conditions)
Average Closed Loop Lambda Voltage: 410 mV (right where expected, indicating good loop closing)

The new shift plots are looking the same as the earlier stock sensor plots. The big difference being the improved performance and the AFR meter reading 14.2:1 +/-. The above also indicates that the Motronic has been "convinced" to accept the programmable O2 setting and doesn't know that I've richened Closed Loop Lambda.

The next tests will be on the highway.

There are several variables still to tuned:

High Lambda Voltage: (800 mV to 1V)
Low Lambda Voltage: (0V to 200mV)
Low Lambda Value: (how far below the 0.965 mid-point)
High Lambda Value: (how much above the 0.965 mid-point)
Target Lambda: (is there a better target that 0.965, implied AFR 14.2)

Filter Sensor inputs?
Monitor Sensor waveform.

In spite of what needs to be evaluated still, it looks to me like a slightly lower Lambda target (richer AFR) makes a MUCH smoother bike.

Will post up some charts later.
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Old 12-20-2011, 07:33 AM   #24
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Some Data Plots from AFR=14.2

Here are some plots of several thousand data points acquired while running at 14.2 Air Fuel Ratio (AFR). The key observation is that the Motronic is operating normally, unaware that it has been spoofed to run at Lambda=0.965 which is an equivalent gasoline AFR of 14.2.

This an acceleration through a couple of gears with a warm engine. Notice that just like the earlier chart (a few posts back), the Motronic goes into closed loop while the RPM is accelerating. The Motronic doesn't know the Closed Loop AFR is 14.2, but for the rider (me) the engine feels much stronger and smoother because the AFR is richer.




The next two charts show a before (14.7 AFR with Stock Narrow Band O2 Sensor) and after (14.2 AFR with Wideband O2 Sensor and LC-1 connected to the Motronic in place of the Stock Sensor). Although the shapes of the curves are different due to how I have set up the hi/low transitions (something I will continue to experiment with) the key takeaway is that the Mean (average) and Median voltages are nearly identical (about 20 mV different). This suggests that the Motronic is controlling Closed Loop operation and is satisfied that it is in charge, producing the same average Lambda in Closed Loop.

Stock O2 Sensor


Wideband O2 Sensor


Next I will get some highway riding time in.
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Old 12-20-2011, 06:00 PM   #25
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Great work and a question

Hi.
Sounds like you've made a real improvement! Great work but it does seem like a lot of work. Why didn't you just install something like the Rhine West performance chip? Look forward to your reply.
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Old 12-20-2011, 07:06 PM   #26
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Originally Posted by ROHrider View Post
Hi.
Sounds like you've made a real improvement! Great work but it does seem like a lot of work. Why didn't you just install something like the Rhine West performance chip? Look forward to your reply.
Thank you. The design and testing has taken some effort.

I see two choices for solving the "lean burn" Closed Loop weakness.

1) Take out the O2 sensor and go Open Loop all the time. Or rechip or Powercommander or some other way to stay open loop.

2) Put in an O2 sensor that can be reprogrammed to a different switching value than Lambda=1.

I wanted to keep the Cat Converter and the standard Motronic so the choice was #2.

It was a lot of work to figure it out. I don't think it will be a lot of work to implement a second time. My next efforts will be to determine the minimum change that will produce the desired results, and some fine tuning of the LC-1 parameters.

My conclusion is that the Boxer engine in the R1150 was not really designed to operate with a 14.7:1 mixture (lambda=1). So my two fixes:

1) A BoosterPlug to correct Open Loop for E10 fuel.
2) A programmable Wideband O2 Closed Loop sensor to richen Closed Loop operation.

Roger

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Old 12-20-2011, 07:49 PM   #27
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Another couple questions

Hello again Roger.
I see from the screen shot above that you programed the Analog Out #1 lead as follows:
1) clicked the box "use air fuel ratio,
2) 0.9 volts at AF 13.7,
3) 0.103 volts at AF 14.7.
Is that correct?
Did you use any of the "Advanced" programing features? Thanks for your reply.
Robert
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Old 12-20-2011, 08:10 PM   #28
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Originally Posted by ROHrider View Post
Hello again Roger.
I see from the screen shot above that you programed the Analog Out #1 lead as follows:
1) clicked the box "use air fuel ratio,
2) 0.9 volts at AF 13.7,
3) 0.103 volts at AF 14.7.
Is that correct?
Did you use any of the "Advanced" programing features? Thanks for your reply.
Robert
I am still experimenting with all four numbers. Two voltages and two AFRs. Also trying different advanced filtering numbers.

The main feature of the advanced tab is how fast the sensor responds. Nothing set there yet.
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Old 12-20-2011, 08:47 PM   #29
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Originally Posted by roger 04 rt View Post

I see two choices for solving the "lean burn" Closed Loop weakness.

1) Take out the O2 sensor and go Open Loop all the time. (Unfortunately removing the O2 sensor input will not work. The Motronic ECU has other ways to mimic closed loop operation without having an O2 sensor input. All ECUs designed to operate a motor with a catalyst exhaust have this ability.) Or rechip or Powercommander or some other way to stay open loop. (Closed loop isn't bad, it just isn't done well in this BMW example.)

2) Put in an O2 sensor that can be reprogrammed to a different switching value than Lambda=1.

I wanted to keep the Cat Converter and the standard Motronic so the choice was #2.

It was a lot of work to figure it out. I don't think it will be a lot of work to implement a second time. My next efforts will be to determine the minimum change that will produce the desired results, and some fine tuning of the LC-1 parameters.

My conclusion is that the Boxer engine in the R1150 was not really designed to operate with a 14.7:1 mixture (Sure it is, all motors are. It's just that the BMW Motronic wasn't implemented to do it very well.) (lambda=1). So my two fixes:

1) A BoosterPlug to correct Open Loop for E10 fuel. (see p.s. below)
2) A programmable Wideband O2 Closed Loop sensor to richen Closed Loop operation.
It's really cool that you went for this, and especially cool that you posted up the data in this thread. Hats off to you for taking on this project!

In sort of an aside, I've been wanting to ask you about the FI aircraft operation you spoke about in the MOA thread. (Since I'm not a member, I hope you'll excuse me asking it here.) You mentioned that you leaned the motor to a Best Power of <14:1 mixture, and also a >15:1 Best Economy mixture. Was the process to lean the mixture to peak EGT, then go a little richer for a cooler EGT? Did the motor have an EGT sensor on each exhaust port?


p.s.: A -30C offset in the Intake Air Temp sensor will better make up for open loop leanness when using E10 fuel. The IICE Air has a -30C setting. If you want one send me a PM.


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Old 12-21-2011, 04:19 AM   #30
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It's really cool that you went for this, and especially cool that you posted up the data in this thread. Hats off to you for taking on this project!

In sort of an aside, I've been wanting to ask you about the FI aircraft operation you spoke about in the MOA thread. (Since I'm not a member, I hope you'll excuse me asking it here.) You mentioned that you leaned the motor to a Best Power of <14:1 mixture, and also a >15:1 Best Economy mixture. Was the process to lean the mixture to peak EGT, then go a little richer for a cooler EGT? Did the motor have an EGT sensor on each exhaust port?


p.s.: A -30C offset in the Intake Air Temp sensor will better make up for open loop leanness when using E10 fuel. The IICE Air has a -30C setting. If you want one send me a PM.

If you want to skip the narrative, a direct answer is near the end. Will send you a PM about IICE AIR, thank you.

The aircraft I operated for a couple decades had a 300 HP, six-cylinder horizontally-opposed engine (like three Boxer engines back to back to back ;) ). There were three main power management controls: throttle, propeller speed (think if it like the transmission), and fuel mixture. It was fuel injected in much the same manner as the R1150 engine, except there was no fuel computer (or O2 sensor!). Engine management was (and still is) a duty of the pilot in that aircraft (a Beech A36, kind of an R1150 of the air).

Getting engine management right in an aircraft is a critical duty. Get it wrong and you: damage the engine, run out of fuel, travel more slowly and/or spend more money for the same trip--or all of the above. If you want to get anywhere in a hurry, you get to cruising altitude, set propeller speed and throttle for 75% of full power (where you will operate for a few hours) and lean the mixture.

I had a single-probe EGT (exhaust gas temperature) system which I later upgraded to a 6 probe (one per cylinder) gauge.

Here is how power is managed (from memory, not from my checklist):

Annual Inspection: Full rich fuel-flow is checked and set to specification for full-power, mid-power and idle, at sea-level.

Take-Off: Hold Brakes, Tank switch to fullest tank, mixture to Full Rich, propeller to full RPM, throttle to Wide Open, at full power, release brakes and take off. (If taking off at an airport above sea level, lean mixture to spec.)

In flight leaning:
Best Power Setting: from the Full Rich setting, lean mixture to peak EGT (first cylinder to peak in a 6 probe system), then richen mixture to 100 degrees F below peak EGT.

Best Economy Setting: from the Full Rich setting, lean mixture to peak EGT (first cylinder to peak in a 6 probe system), then lean mixture to 100 degrees F below peak EGT.

An interesting side note: the one place the engine was NEVER operated was at the Stoichiometric mixture of 14.7:1 as it is neither the Best Power point nor the Best Economy point.
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