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Old 02-18-2012, 04:46 AM   #1
roger 04 rt OP
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Wideband O2 Installation Overview

Here is an updated installation guide as of March 11, 2013

For those who have followed my project to integrate an Innovate Motorsports LC-1 Wideband O2 Sensor and Controller onto my 2004 R1150RT, I wanted to give an overview of what you need to buy and how it is installed.

The goals of this project were to richen the stock stoichiometric AFR of 14.7:1 (a lean mixture) to something in the range of 13.8 to 14.2 (heading toward a Best Power mixture). Most motors produce more horsepower and torque; do not lean-surge; and run cooler and more reliably as you richen the mixture toward Best Power ratios.

It was an objective that both the Open Loop and Closed Loop fueling mixtures were improved. That meant that I would need to shift the Lambda sensor from 14.7 to the new target (e.g. 13.8). It was also an objective that the Motronic maintained its full function.

After extensive riding and datalogging, I am satisfied that AFRs in the 13.8 to 14.2 range do add power, improve driveability, don't lean-surge and the Motronic continues to operate as designed.

Installation photos:

LC-1, Wideband O2 and Gauge (Red or Blue)
















Here are the parts:

1. (optional) BoosterPlug to richen Open Loop by 6% or 3.5 Bar fuel pressure regulator (8%). This is to shift the Open Loop fuel table to reduce Adaptation time. If you don't add one of these parts Adaptation to the new AFR Target takes about a tank of fuel. N.B. I used an external adjustable regulator in the fuel return line so that I could make adjustments to pressure as I experimented.
2. Innovate Motorsports LC-1, Bosch Wideband O2, and DB gauge (package from Amazon).
3. Plastic project box 2" x 4" x 1", cable ties, heat shrink tube.
4. A computer with Serial Port to set the AFR on the LC-1.

Here are the steps, see the photos above.

1. Pull the fairings and fuel tank, disconnect ground from the battery.

2. Drop the exhaust, remove the old O2 Sensor (note where cable is routed), cut the sensor from the cable about 4" from the sensor, keep the cable with connector for the new installation. Save the old sensor in case.

3. This is the only tedious step. Take the plastic project box and drill two 3/8" cable entry holes in each end, drill two more holes along one side for the calibration switch and status LED. Insert the cables through rubber grommets as shown in the photo. Wire according to LC-1 instructions with the following additional notes:

a) The stock O2 sensor cable & connector has four wires: the two white wires (Stock O2 heater) can be taped over, they are not needed. The gray wire is sensor ground, tape it over also (or it can be connected through a 1.5K resistor to the controller ground inside the box). The black wire is connected to the LC-1 Analog Ouput 1 which is the Narrowband output.

b) Insert three 3' wires (18 gauge) into the proto box: heater ground, controller ground and 12V. The two ground wires get attached to a single lug which is bolted to the battery ground post. The 12V wire can be connected to the 12V lead on the left-hand fuel injector. This is the easiest fused, key-switched power source but it goes off after a couple seconds since it is the same source as the fuel pump. This source of +12V is on one of the two white wires in the O2 sensor cable so you could have access to in inside the junction box.

Better find a 12V line that goes on and off with the key. The fused side of F1 or F8 is a good choice.

4. Relocate the Motronic O2 sensor connector to the area near the fuel tank electrical connector, on the right hand side of the cycle.

5. Install the LC-1 and proto box where shown in the photos. Plug the Stock O2 connector into the Motronic input O2 connector; connect the power and ground wires; reinstall fuel tank; reset the Motronic; initialize the throttle.

6. Install BoosterPlug or 3.5 Bar regulator if you are using one.

7. Follow the LC-1 instructions for calibrating the Wideband sensor and it's heater.

8. Install the Wideband O2 sensor in the exhaust in the stock O2 sensor bung per the LC-1 instructions; reinstall exhauast; reinstall fairings when you're ready.

9. The AFR gauge cable is coiled under the seat and I connect the gauge as needed.

10. Program your target AFR. Start your engine.

Block Diagram of Finished System


roger 04 rt screwed with this post 03-12-2013 at 03:57 AM
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Old 02-18-2012, 05:38 AM   #2
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I'm a n00b when it comes to BMW's fuel injection and ECM, but I have extensive experience tuning Harley's Delphi ECM with the TTS Mastertune. I'm assuming that BMW is using a Lambda-based closed-loop system utilizing the O2 sensor, the MAP sensor, TPS, temperature sensors, etc. If that's incorrect, please let me know.

The resistor-type harnesses that fool the ECM into thinking that the ambient air is cooler than it actually is, and adding warmup fuel (there is a table for this in the Delphi system). As you've noted, this only effects open-loop operation, as the ECM is relying on the O2 feedback at other times to reach target AFR/Lambda. However, due to Adaptive Fuel Values (AFVs), you'll see bias creep into the closed-loop areas due to the ECM's learning capabilities. AFVs are not affected by engine shutdown; they're either learned away, or the ECM needs to be re-flashed. The amount of change to closed-loop areas will vary, but it won't be much.

The larger issue with these sorts of things is that there's no telling what they'll do. The Booster Plug advertises a 6% richening, but it's in your open-loop areas. Open-loop is exactly where you don't really need it, as you're already well richer than Stoich just about everywhere other than closed-loop. The Delphi defines closed-loop from around 1750-4000 RPM and 20-70 MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure). When I did a tune, I'd keep it at 2000-3750, 30-55 MAP. So the BP will fatten up WOT and stuck-in-traffic areas, but not much else, and (realistically) it'll probably vary from the advertised 6% by 5-10% either way.

And it's also not addressing Volumetric Efficiency. The Delphi uses a front and rear VE table with an RPM and MAP axis to determine cylinder filling (VE) necessary to achieve the target AFR/Lambda. It is my experience that the VE tables are where you really see your power, efficiency, and rideability gains, as the factory generally doesn't have them optimized. By using a data logging device like the TTS, you can record sensor data and get the VE tables just about perfect so that the target AFR/Lambda is actually achieved. Generally, this is done with the AFR/Lambda set uniformly to right around 14.4/.981. WIth quality wideband O2 sensors, you can record and tune at your targets rather than in the narrow closed-loop that standard narrow-band O2 sensors operate in, but a quality wideband that has the switching speed necessary is mucho dinero.

If you get the VEs set right, you can (and should in my opinion) run your closed-loop range from around .977-.983. This will maximize fuel efficiency, and (assuming your VEs have been addressed) will have the engine running cool and happy. There is a negligible difference in CHT (Cylinder Head Temperature), oil temperature, and felt heat by going much richer than that. High-MAP, high-RPM areas are already (and should be) much richer, with WOT being somewhere in the neighborhood of .85.

And then there's ignition timing, which makes a huge difference as well, but that's well outside of what you're doing.

The long and the short of it is that it'd be really nice to have a tool available to datalog and re-flash the ECM, as we'd probably see substantial gains in rideability and smoothness, though probably not power, as the boxer does pretty well as delivered. On a Harley Big Twin, a set of pipes, a more open air cleaner, and a tune like I'm talking about would net about a 20% increase in both torque and horsepower, a roughly 50 degree drop in CHT, 3 to 5 more MPG, and a vastly more enjoyable bike to ride. It'd be nice to quantify the changes you're seeing with your work.
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Old 02-18-2012, 07:58 AM   #3
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Thank you for the extensive, insightful comments (PM Sent). There is so much there, I've numbered the paragraphs. If you're interested in some of the data I've collected as I evaluated the merits of adapting a new sensor, they're here: Wideband O2 Project. Most of my experience with fuel injection is from piloting where you monitor fuel flow, EGT and have your hand on the mixture control often.

I've responded to your comments, indented, below.
Roger

Quote:
Originally Posted by '05Train View Post

1) I'm a n00b when it comes to BMW's fuel injection and ECM, but I have extensive experience tuning Harley's Delphi ECM with the TTS Mastertune. I'm assuming that BMW is using a Lambda-based closed-loop system utilizing the O2 sensor, the MAP sensor, TPS, temperature sensors, etc. If that's incorrect, please let me know.
Yes, it is a narrowband lambda=1 closed-loop system. For the R1100 and R1150 motorcycles, it is an Alpha-n system that relies on RPM and TPS. It also monitors air intake temperature, battery voltage, oil temp, ambient air pressure. It does not have an intake manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor.
2) The resistor-type harnesses that fool the ECM into thinking that the ambient air is cooler than it actually is, and adding warmup fuel (there is a table for this in the Delphi system). As you've noted, this only effects open-loop operation, as the ECM is relying on the O2 feedback at other times to reach target AFR/Lambda. However, due to Adaptive Fuel Values (AFVs), you'll see bias creep into the closed-loop areas due to the ECM's learning capabilities. AFVs are not affected by engine shutdown; they're either learned away, or the ECM needs to be re-flashed. The amount of change to closed-loop areas will vary, but it won't be much.
There is a cold-enrichment factor that monitors oil temperature, adding a sliding enrichment while the motorcycle warms up. Once warmed up, that factor is neutral to fueling. The air temperature factor is applied based on AIT sensor at all times I've measured.

Yes, only Open Loop for the BP with no affect on Closed Loop since it is governed by Lamda=1 from the stock O2 sensor. (Of course I now run at Lambda=0.94 to 0.97, anywhere in that range is a big improvement.

I believe that the Motronic does hold AFVs until the power is removed. That suggests that many aftermarket additions, which rarely affect Closed Loop, also get neutralized during Open Loop. The one thing you can do to affect both Open and Closed Loop is to shift from Lambda=1 to something else. That's what is so exciting about this project.
3) The larger issue with these sorts of things is that there's no telling what they'll do. The Booster Plug advertises a 6% richening, but it's in your open-loop areas. Open-loop is exactly where you don't really need it, as you're already well richer than Stoich just about everywhere other than closed-loop. The Delphi defines closed-loop from around 1750-4000 RPM and 20-70 MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure). When I did a tune, I'd keep it at 2000-3750, 30-55 MAP. So the BP will fatten up WOT and stuck-in-traffic areas, but not much else, and (realistically) it'll probably vary from the advertised 6% by 5-10% either way.
In principal, I agree with you. What I have done is used the BP to shift open loop fueling richer about 6% to create a better starting point for my Lambda=0.94 (also and not coincidently, 6% richer). I have literally watched the AFR hunt to find the new adaptive factors as I reprogram Lambda to a new value. Having an AFR gauge and AFR plotting really helps diagnose fueling.

Regarding stuck in traffic, the Motronic runs closed loop right to idle, to about 3000 RPM with light light and to higher RPMs under heavier loads. Data I've taken shows that on the typical winding road ride, the Motronic is Closed Loop about 45% of the time.
4) And it's also not addressing Volumetric Efficiency. The Delphi uses a front and rear VE table with an RPM and MAP axis to determine cylinder filling (VE) necessary to achieve the target AFR/Lambda. It is my experience that the VE tables are where you really see your power, efficiency, and rideability gains, as the factory generally doesn't have them optimized. By using a data logging device like the TTS, you can record sensor data and get the VE tables just about perfect so that the target AFR/Lambda is actually achieved. Generally, this is done with the AFR/Lambda set uniformly to right around 14.4/.981. WIth quality wideband O2 sensors, you can record and tune at your targets rather than in the narrow closed-loop that standard narrow-band O2 sensors operate in, but a quality wideband that has the switching speed necessary is mucho dinero.
I'm in agreement with your VE comments and have thought about replacing the Motronic with a Microsquirt ECU so that I could optimize the VE and Spark tables, but it seems to big a project at the moment.

For small enrichments, the timing seems okay. Even though I've added HP and torque to much of the performance curve, I'm sure that there's a lot left on the table still that could be accessed with better Spark and VE.
5) If you get the VEs set right, you can (and should in my opinion) run your closed-loop range from around .977-.983. This will maximize fuel efficiency, and (assuming your VEs have been addressed) will have the engine running cool and happy. There is a negligible difference in CHT (Cylinder Head Temperature), oil temperature, and felt heat by going much richer than that. High-MAP, high-RPM areas are already (and should be) much richer, with WOT being somewhere in the neighborhood of .85.
It is counter-intuitive that you can richen the mixture (Lambda=0.96/7) and improve fuel economy but I accept what you're saying. Aircraft engines run cooler, "happier" and more reliably on the rich side of peak EGT.
6) And then there's ignition timing, which makes a huge difference as well, but that's well outside of what you're doing.
To get at timing, I'd have to go with a Microsquirt or something like it. That's too much for now.
7) The long and the short of it is that it'd be really nice to have a tool available to datalog and re-flash the ECM, as we'd probably see substantial gains in rideability and smoothness, though probably not power, as the boxer does pretty well as delivered. On a Harley Big Twin, a set of pipes, a more open air cleaner, and a tune like I'm talking about would net about a 20% increase in both torque and horsepower, a roughly 50 degree drop in CHT, 3 to 5 more MPG, and a vastly more enjoyable bike to ride. It'd be nice to quantify the changes you're seeing with your work.
The R1100 and R1150s are great bikes as delivered. But when delivered with a CO potentiometer they run mixtures in the 13.8 to 14.1 range. When delivered with Lambda (O2) sensors they run 14.7 and higher. I immediately felt the improvement from a controlled shift to an AFR of 14.2 (Lambda=0.97)
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Old 02-18-2012, 08:08 AM   #4
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Software Settings for AFR=14.2

This is the LC-1 first setup page. I left Stoichiometric at 14.7 (rather than adjust to 14.13 of E10 fuel) since it's easier to think in those terms.


Here are the voltage and Lambda settings that created the best O2 toggling waveform. They take into account a 140mV low side offset that I discovered in the Motronic, and produce a sharp change from Lambda=0.965 to 0.975.


I selected updating 12 times per second as a way to keep the Motronic from over-responding to the very sensitive LC-1.
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Old 02-18-2012, 09:08 AM   #5
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Very cool Roger. I'll take a look at your other thread when I have some time and try to catch up with what the Motronic will do.
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Old 04-05-2012, 11:01 AM   #6
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I know there is some interest in gas mileage with the LC-1 Wideband O2 set at 13.8:1. Here are some data points.

3/26/12
Just ran my first gas mileage test using the LC-1 Wideband O2 set to 13.8:1 AFR. All the driving was local trips. no highway, up to 25 miles per trip, some as short as 5 miles. I burned 2.48 gallons, for 106 miles. That's about 43 MPG.

4/5/12
I've now made a 102 mile highway trip at 60-70 MPH, mostly in 6th gear, temperature 45 degrees, wind speed 18 MPH +/-, driving 50 miles West on the Mass Pike and turning around driving the same route in the other direction in the same conditions. The tank was filled at the same station and to the same level (touching the filler neck) before and after at the same station. Total fuel on the pump 2.008 gallons. Approximate mileage 51 MPG.
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Old 04-30-2012, 11:18 AM   #7
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For anyone who would like to install an LC-1 or Lambda shifting device but doesn't feel comfortable with the scope of the project, I would like to bring a possible source of this part to your attention.

Steven Mullen, a patent holder on lambda shifting devices, has a business adding these types of parts to twin-cylinder motorcycles. I got to know Steve when I came across his web site and Youtube video. Over the many months of my own Wideband project, Steve provided insight and a sounding board and I have good level of respect for him.

At present, he does not make lambda shifting devices for the BMW line of motorcycles but if you contact him and there is some demand, he might be interested. Here are his web sites:

Nightrider.com
Tuneyourharley
LC-1 Installation Video

I don't have a commercial or personal interest in Steven or his company but thought that someone who wanted to try this technology might want to contact him. He is a wealth of knowledge.
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Old 05-12-2012, 02:44 AM   #8
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At the end of this project I made a gas mileage analysis, here is the link to that study, which got moved to riders along with the original research.

R1150RT Gas Mileage

And the link to the original research.

R1150RT Wideband Reaearch
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Old 05-12-2012, 10:36 PM   #9
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All that is done automatically by the bbpower chip which is replacing the bmw chip in the motronic....
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Old 05-13-2012, 07:22 PM   #10
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BBPowerchip is a very different approach. It looks like the chip is a match for their cams and a Remus but there is no info on closed loop AFR. Main claim is higher rpm leading to higher WOT HP.

If they don't disable the O2 sensor, and there is no comment on that on their site, then they will still have a lean-cruise motorcycle.

Adding an LC-1 Wideband sensor adds Power and torque in the cruising range by allowing closed loop and open loop mixtures to be richer.

Personally I am cautious about products like the BBPowerchip that don't explain how they work.
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Old 05-14-2012, 08:35 AM   #11
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Quote:
Originally Posted by roger 04 rt View Post
BBPowerchip is a very different approach. It looks like the chip is a match for their cams and a Remus but there is no info on closed loop AFR. Main claim is higher rpm leading to higher WOT HP.

If they don't disable the O2 sensor, and there is no comment on that on their site, then they will still have a lean-cruise motorcycle.

Adding an LC-1 Wideband sensor adds Power and torque in the cruising range by allowing closed loop and open loop mixtures to be richer.

Personally I am cautious about products like the BBPowerchip that don't explain how they work.
That is a fair point you make.
In my experience though, it has transformed the way my bike run.
I had Y+remus, KN filter, an enlarged intake snorkel and RT snorkels (from airbox to throttle bodies) and the bike run very strong especially above 6000rpm. Unfortunately I don't have the bike anymore as I jumped to the orange side, but in all fairness, the bike post mods was a totally different bike.
Have you played around with the TPS to eliminate the lean surge?
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Old 05-15-2012, 01:13 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mousitsas View Post
...
Have you played around with the TPS to eliminate the lean surge?
Here again, if the lean-surge is during Closed Loop cruising, the TPS plays only a secondary role (as a starting point). And on the 1150RT, the Motronic calibrates the TPS following a reset by having the user rotate the throttle.

If you want to cure light-throttle lean-surging or value-hunting by the Motronic, you have to richen the mixture (or in some cases super-tune it away). Otherwise, you can disconnect the O2 and then add a Techlusion, PowerCommander, IICE Air or BoosterPlug (the IICE Air and BoosterPlug aren't designed for disconnected O2 operation but work well in that application) and get some richening during cruising. Or as I've done on my bike, I've kept it in Closed Loop but interfaced a Wideband O2 Sensor so that I can program it to a richer switching point, 13.8:1 in my case, where the motorcycle runs very strong.
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Old 08-29-2012, 07:42 AM   #13
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For anyone considering an LC-1 Wideband O2 upgrade, I noticed that the Amazon price for LC-1 Controller, Bosch Wideband O2 Sensor and AFR Display Gauge is now $145 US. Not only does it actually work to improve driveability and low end torque by letting you program a richer mixture (although a bit of a project to install) it is now less costly than a Powercommander, Techlusion or even a BoosterPlug.

Software for your PC that allows monitoring and graphing AFR is included at no charge.
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Old 11-20-2012, 07:32 PM   #14
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Installation Instructions at Start of Thread Updated
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Old 12-05-2012, 10:46 AM   #15
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If you're planning to install an LC-1 on an Oilhead, Innovate Motorsports provides detailed installation and setup instructions which should be used. Below is a diagram of the wiring on one page. It is as simple as bringing a few cables together in a box, twisting the ends of the wires, soldering them for connection (or crimp if you prefer) and insulating the ends if soldered.

Here is a PDF link for anyone who prefers that format: LC-1 Installation Diagrams (2 pages).



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